Codeforces Round #595 (Div. 3)

A. Yet Another Dividing into Teams

time limit per test1 second memory limit per test256 megabytes

You are a coach of a group consisting of n students. The i-th student has programming skill \(a_i\). All students have distinct programming skills. You want to divide them into teams in such a way that:

  • No two students i and j such that \(|a_i – a_j| = 1\) belong to the same team (i.e. skills of each pair of students in the same team have the difference strictly greater than 1);
  • the number of teams is the minimum possible.

You have to answer q independent queries.

Input

The first line of the input contains one integer q \((1 \le q \le 100)\) — the number of queries. Then q queries follow.

The first line of the query contains one integer n \((1 \le n \le 100)\) — the number of students in the query. The second line of the query contains n integers \(a_1, a_2, \dots, a_n\) \((1 \le a_i \le 100\), all a_i are distinct), where a_i is the programming skill of the i-th student.

Output

For each query, print the answer on it — the minimum number of teams you can form if no two students i and j such that \(|a_i – a_j| = 1\) may belong to the same team (i.e. skills of each pair of students in the same team has the difference strictly greater than 1)

Exampleinput

4
4
2 10 1 20
2
3 6
5
2 3 4 99 100
1
42

output

2
1
2
1

Note

In the first query of the example, there are n=4 students with the skills a=[2, 10, 1, 20]. There is only one restriction here: the 1-st and the 3-th students can’t be in the same team (because of \(|a_1 – a_3|=|2-1|=1\)). It is possible to divide them into 2 teams: for example, students 1, 2 and 4 are in the first team and the student 3 in the second team.

In the second query of the example, there are n=2 students with the skills a=[3, 6]. It is possible to compose just a single team containing both students.

签到

#include<bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
#define rep(i,a,b) for(int i=(a);i<=(b);++i)
#define dep(i,a,b) for(int i=(a);i>=(b);--i)
#define pb push_back
typedef long long ll;
const int maxn=(int)2e5+100;
const int mod=(int)1e9+7;
int n,a[110];
void solve(){
    scanf("%d",&n);
    rep(i,1,n) scanf("%d",&a[i]);
    sort(a+1,a+1+n);
    int ans=1;
    rep(i,2,n) if(a[i]-a[i-1]==1) ans=2;
    printf("%d\n",ans);
}
int main(){
    int T;cin>>T;
    while(T--) solve();
}


B2. Books Exchange (hard version)

time limit per test1 second memory limit per test256 megabytes

The only difference between easy and hard versions is constraints.

There are n kids, each of them is reading a unique book. At the end of any day, the i-th kid will give his book to the \(p_i\)-t) kid (in case of i = \(p_i\) the kid will give his book to himself). It is guaranteed that all values of \(p_i\) are distinct integers from 1 to n (i.e. p is a permutation). The sequence p doesn’t change from day to day, it is fixed.

For example, if n=6 and p=[4, 6, 1, 3, 5, 2] then at the end of the first day the book of the 1-st kid will belong to the 4-th kid, the 2-nd kid will belong to the 6-th kid and so on. At the end of the second day the book of the 1-st kid will belong to the 3-th kid, the 2-nd kid will belong to the 2-th kid and so on.

Your task is to determine the number of the day the book of the i-th child is returned back to him for the first time for every i from 1 to n.

Consider the following example: p = [5, 1, 2, 4, 3]. The book of the 1-st kid will be passed to the following kids:

  • after the 1-st day it will belong to the 5-th kid,
  • after the 2-nd day it will belong to the 3-rd kid,
  • after the 3-rd day it will belong to the 2-nd kid,
  • after the 4-th day it will belong to the 1-st kid.

So after the fourth day, the book of the first kid will return to its owner. The book of the fourth kid will return to him for the first time after exactly one day.

You have to answer q independent queries.

Input

The first line of the input contains one integer q \((1 \le q \le 1000)\) — the number of queries. Then q queries follow.

The first line of the query contains one integer n \((1 \le n \le 2 \cdot 10^5)\) — the number of kids in the query. The second line of the query contains n integers \(p_1, p_2, \dots, p_n (1 \le p_i \le n, all p_i are distinct, i.e. p is a permutation)\), where p_i is the kid which will get the book of the i-th kid.

It is guaranteed that \(\sum n \le 2 \cdot 10^5\) (sum of n over all queries does not exceed \(2 \cdot 10^5\)).Output

For each query, print the answer on it: n integers \(a_1, a_2, \dots, a_n\), where \(a_i\) is the number of the day the book of the i-th child is returned back to him for the first time in this query.

Exampleinput

6
5
1 2 3 4 5
3
2 3 1
6
4 6 2 1 5 3
1
1
4
3 4 1 2
5
5 1 2 4 3

output

1 1 1 1 1 
3 3 3 
2 3 3 2 1 3 
1 
2 2 2 2 
4 4 4 1 4 

签到题,模拟

#include<bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
#define rep(i,a,b) for(int i=(a);i<=(b);++i)
#define dep(i,a,b) for(int i=(a);i>=(b);--i)
#define pb push_back
typedef long long ll;
const int maxn=(int)2e5+100;
const int mod=(int)1e9+7;
int n,a[maxn],ans[maxn],id[maxn];
void solve(){
    scanf("%d",&n);
    rep(i,1,n) scanf("%d",&a[i]);
    rep(i,1,n) ans[i]=0;
    rep(i,1,n) if(!ans[i]){
        int nxt=a[i],cnt=1;
        while(nxt!=i){
            cnt++;
            nxt=a[nxt];
        }
        nxt=a[i]; ans[i]=cnt;
        while(nxt!=i) ans[nxt]=cnt,nxt=a[nxt];
    }
    rep(i,1,n) printf(i==n?"%d\n":"%d ",ans[i]);
}
int main(){
    int T;cin>>T;
    while(T--) solve();
}


C2. Good Numbers (hard version)

time limit per test2 seconds memory limit per test256 megabytes

The only difference between easy and hard versions is the maximum value of n.

You are given a positive integer number n. You really love good numbers so you want to find the smallest good number greater than or equal to n.

The positive integer is called good if it can be represented as a sum of distinct powers of 3 (i.e. no duplicates of powers of 3 are allowed).

For example:

  • 30 is a good number: \(30 = 3^3 + 3^1\),
  • 1 is a good number: \(1 = 3^0\),
  • 12 is a good number: \(12 = 3^2 + 3^1\),
  • but 2 is not a good number: you can’t represent it as a sum of distinct powers of 3 \((2 = 3^0 + 3^0)\),
  • 19 is not a good number: you can’t represent it as a sum of distinct powers of 3 (for example, the representations \(19 = 3^2 + 3^2 + 3^0 = 3^2 + 3^1 + 3^1 + 3^1 + 3^0\) are invalid),
  • 20 is also not a good number: you can’t represent it as a sum of distinct powers of 3 (for example, the representation \(20 = 3^2 + 3^2 + 3^0 + 3^0\) is invalid).

Note, that there exist other representations of 19 and 20 as sums of powers of 3 but none of them consists of distinct powers of 3.

For the given positive integer n find such smallest m \((n \le m)\) that m is a good number.

You have to answer q independent queries.

Input

The first line of the input contains one integer q \((1 \le q \le 500)\) — the number of queries. Then q queries follow.

The only line of the query contains one integer n \((1 \le n \le 10^{18})\).

Output

For each query, print such smallest integer m (where \(n \le m\)) that m is a good number.Exampleinput

8
1
2
6
13
14
3620
10000
1000000000000000000

output

1
3
9
13
27
6561
19683
1350851717672992089

每次减去最大的三的幂次,因为这个数会增长的很快,不用像背包那样考虑

#include<bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
#define rep(i,a,b) for(int i=(a);i<=(b);++i)
#define dep(i,a,b) for(int i=(a);i>=(b);--i)
#define pb push_back
typedef long long ll;
const int maxn=(int)2e5+100;
const int mod=(int)1e9+7;
ll n;
void solve(){
    scanf("%lld",&n);
    ll ans=0,tmp=1;
    while(ans<n) ans+=tmp,tmp*=3;
    while(tmp){
        if(ans-tmp>=n) ans-=tmp;
        tmp/=3;
    }
    printf("%lld\n",ans);
}
int main(){
    int T;cin>>T;
    while(T--) solve();
}


D2. Too Many Segments (hard version)

time limit per test2 seconds memory limit per test256 megabytes

The only difference between easy and hard versions is constraints.

You are given n segments on the coordinate axis OX. Segments can intersect, lie inside each other and even coincide. The i-th segment is \([l_i; r_i] (l_i \le r_i)\) and it covers all integer points j such that \(l_i \le j \le r_i\).

The integer point is called bad if it is covered by strictly more than k segments.

Your task is to remove the minimum number of segments so that there are no bad points at all.

Input

The first line of the input contains two integers n and k \((1 \le k \le n \le 2 \cdot 10^5)\) — the number of segments and the maximum number of segments by which each integer point can be covered.

The next n lines contain segments. The i-th line contains two integers \(l_i\) and \(r_i\) \((1 \le l_i \le r_i \le 2 \cdot 10^5)\) — the endpoints of the i-th segment.

Output

In the first line print one integer m \((0 \le m \le n)\) — the minimum number of segments you need to remove so that there are no bad points.

In the second line print m distinct integers \(p_1, p_2, \dots, p_m (1 \le p_i \le n)\) — indices of segments you remove in any order. If there are multiple answers, you can print any of them.

Examplesinput

7 2
11 11
9 11
7 8
8 9
7 8
9 11
7 9

output

3
4 6 7 

input

5 1
29 30
30 30
29 29
28 30
30 30

output

3
1 4 5 

input

6 1
2 3
3 3
2 3
2 2
2 3
2 3

output

4
1 3 5 6 

一道差分的题,每次贪心地删最长的,用一个优先队列维护就好啦

#include<bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
#define rep(i,a,b) for(int i=(a);i<=(b);++i)
#define dep(i,a,b) for(int i=(a);i>=(b);--i)
#define pb push_back
typedef long long ll;
const int maxn=(int)2e5+100;
const int mod=(int)1e9+7;
int n,k,cnt[maxn];
struct node{
    int l,r,id;
    bool operator<(const node b)const{return r<b.r;}
};
vector<node> q[maxn];
vector<int> ans;
int main(){
    scanf("%d%d",&n,&k);
    rep(i,1,n){
        int x,y;scanf("%d%d",&x,&y);
        q[x].pb({x,y,i});
        cnt[x]++;cnt[y+1]--;
    }
    priority_queue<node> que;
    int now=0;
    rep(i,1,maxn-100){
        now+=cnt[i];
        for(auto u:q[i]) que.push(u);
        while(!que.empty()&&now>k){
            node tmp=que.top(); que.pop();
            if(tmp.r>=i) ans.pb(tmp.id),cnt[tmp.r+1]++,now--;
        }
    }
    printf("%d\n",(int)ans.size());
    for(auto u:ans) printf("%d ",u);
}


E. By Elevator or Stairs?

time limit per test2 seconds memory limit per test256 megabytes

You are planning to buy an apartment in a n-floor building. The floors are numbered from 1 to n from the bottom to the top. At first for each floor you want to know the minimum total time to reach it from the first (the bottom) floor.

Let:

  • \(a_i\) for all i from 1 to n-1 be the time required to go from the i-th floor to the (i+1)-th one (and from the (i+1)-th to the i-th as well) using the stairs;
  • \(b_i\) for all i from 1 to n-1 be the time required to go from the i-th floor to the (i+1)-th one (and from the (i+1)-th to the i-th as well) using the elevator, also there is a value c — time overhead for elevator usage (you need to wait for it, the elevator doors are too slow!).

In one move, you can go from the floor you are staying at x to any floor y (\(x \ne y\)) in two different ways:

  • If you are using the stairs, just sum up the corresponding values of \(a_i\). Formally, it will take \(\sum\limits_{i=min(x, y)}^{max(x, y) – 1} a_i\) time units.
  • If you are using the elevator, just sum up c and the corresponding values of \(b_i\). Formally, it will take \(c + \sum\limits_{i=min(x, y)}^{max(x, y) – 1} b_i\) time units.

You can perform as many moves as you want (possibly zero).

So your task is for each i to determine the minimum total time it takes to reach the i-th floor from the 1-st (bottom) floor.

Input

The first line of the input contains two integers n and c \((2 \le n \le 2 \cdot 10^5, 1 \le c \le 1000)\) — the number of floors in the building and the time overhead for the elevator rides.

The second line of the input contains n – 1 integers \(a_1, a_2, \dots, a_{n-1} (1 \le a_i \le 1000)\), where \(a_i\) is the time required to go from the i-th floor to the (i+1)-th one (and from the (i+1)-th to the i-th as well) using the stairs.

The third line of the input contains n – 1 integers \(b_1, b_2, \dots, b_{n-1} (1 \le b_i \le 1000)\), where b_i is the time required to go from the i-th floor to the (i+1)-th one (and from the (i+1)-th to the i-th as well) using the elevator.

Output

Print n integers\( t_1, t_2, \dots, t_n\), where \(t_i\) is the minimum total time to reach the i-th floor from the first floor if you can perform as many moves as you want.

Examplesinput

10 2
7 6 18 6 16 18 1 17 17
6 9 3 10 9 1 10 1 5

output

0 7 13 18 24 35 36 37 40 45 

input

10 1
3 2 3 1 3 3 1 4 1
1 2 3 4 4 1 2 1 3

output

0 2 4 7 8 11 13 14 16 17 

\(dp[i][0]\) 表示到达第i层,并且在楼梯上的最小时间;
\(dp[i][1]\) 表示到达第i层,并且在电梯上的最小时间;
答案就是\(min(dp[i][1],dp[i][0])\);

#include<bits/stdc++.h>
using namespace std;
#define rep(i,a,b) for(int i=(a);i<=(b);++i)
#define dep(i,a,b) for(int i=(a);i>=(b);--i)
#define pb push_back
typedef long long ll;
const int maxn=(int)2e5+100;
const int mod=(int)1e9+7;
int n,c,dp[maxn][2],a[maxn],b[maxn];
int main(){
    scanf("%d%d",&n,&c);
    rep(i,1,n-1) scanf("%d",&a[i]);
    rep(i,1,n-1) scanf("%d",&b[i]);
    rep(i,1,n) dp[i][0]=dp[i][1]=0x7fffffff;
    dp[1][0]=0;dp[1][1]=c;
    rep(i,2,n){
        dp[i][0]=min(dp[i][0],min(dp[i-1][0],dp[i-1][1])+a[i-1]);
        dp[i][1]=min(dp[i][1],min(dp[i-1][0]+c,dp[i-1][1])+b[i-1]);
    }
    rep(i,1,n) printf("%d ",min(dp[i][0],dp[i][1]));
}

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